Is there a good source for fruit data and information?

Questions and AnswersCategory: ChartsIs there a good source for fruit data and information?
BrewsterBrewster Staff asked 3 years ago

Is there a good source for fruit data and information? Yield, sugar, acidity etc?

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1 Answers
BrewsterBrewster Staff answered 3 years ago

There is a standard source of this data. We have included below.

Introduction

The following data represent typical ranges and average values of specific gravity, titratable acidity, pH, tannin and juice yield for a variety of fruits.

These data sets have been collected by the author from various sources. To the author’s knowledge, this is the most complete and advanced database of its kind anywhere in existence. (This database has taken considerable time and resources to compile and analyse, so please be considerate and reference appropriately.)

The data is of high reliability. However, it is important to bear in mind that such data is highly specific to site, season and fruit variety. The same fruits (even if the same varieties) grown in a different location can, and will, yield different values. Most importantly, this data provides a reference standard (typical data ranges) for numerous fruit juices by which the winemaker can assess the maturity of a fruit by comparing that fruits’ numbers to those provided here. It is additionally helpful when a winemaker does not (or cannot) measure such values and must assume them for winemaking process considerations/calculations. Where possible, fruit growing location is noted so as to provide insight into how the data values vary with location/climate, both trend-wise and quantitatively.

Notes and Data Key

SG refers to the Specific Gravity of the juice extracted from the fruit. Such juice is as low in non-fermentable suspended solids (SS) as possible. Where there was known to be a high level of non-fermentable SS in the juice, the SG is quoted as
< x (less than x) where x is the SG value obtained with the SS present.
L indicates the SG was measured using pure juice leached from the fruit (usually from thawing). The overall SG of the fruit juice will be slightly less than this value.
* indicates the SG is calculated from the concentration of reducing sugars in the juice.
@ indicates the SG is calculated from the concentration of total sugars in the juice.
Such values (marked with * and @) are invariably converted from Brix values (the ^ indicator therefore automatically applies – see below).
Where SG values have been calculated from juice SS and/or reduced sugars and/or total sugars, the average SG is calculated using (in preferential order): SG as juice SS, SG as total sugars, SG as reduced sugars. Such values are not necessarily representative of the fruit as a whole.
Where sugar values have been quoted as % in data sources and the units have not been stated, it has been assumed that they are expressed as %/juice weight (unless otherwise stated). This is a reasonable assumption since the difference between %/juice weight and %/juice volume values are small at the SG values considered here.
Where sugar values are given in g/l, the value has first been converted to degrees Brix and then from that to a SG. The conversion from grams sugar per litre is calculated as follows:
Brix value = 100x / (x + 1000*(1 – (x/1400)))
where x is the sugar concentration (g/l).
Brix is converted to SG using the formula: Brix = ((SG-1)*233)+0.6
(Small samples of the data below provided both SG and Brix data. Source (h) for blackcurrants confirms this correlation, with the data fit showing the relationship Brix = ((SG-1)*234)+0.57. However, sources (e) and (g) for cherries suggests Brix=(SG-1)*123+8, (o) and (q) for passionfruits suggests Brix=(SG-1)*125 + 1.6, and (af) for apples suggests Brix=(SG-1)*189+3.4.). Such variability suggests the presence of SS which have not been accounted for and this should be kept in mind.

Yield is measured in millilitres of juice per kilogram of fruit (ml/kg) and is based on the juice-only yield extracted from the fruit (in as far as is possible). (To convert this figure to US fl.oz. juice/lb fruit multiply this value by 0.0154.) Obviously this value depends on extraction techniques – the use of pectin destroying enzymes and harder pressing will increase yield, the presence of bulk/vegetal lees (particulate matter) will increase the figure false high, etc. In the worst case, the values presented here are based on moderate crushing/pressing and low lees volumes (straining, 24 hour minimum settling). Therefore, it is hoped/expected that these values are conservative estimates rather than over-estimates of yield.
P indicates the known use of pectin destroying enzyme, whilst
N indicates that either none was used, or that its use for the purposes of the yield value given are not significant.

Tannin is measured in grams per litre. A variety of analyses have been used to obtain these figures. Given the scarcity of tannin data, the various analyses will not be noted here.

Fruit Source refers to the growing/maturing condition of the fruit.
Fruit farm refers to fruit that has been grown commercially at a “pick your own”/”U pick” (this distinction is significant because it allows the winemaker to choose the harvest date and allows fruit selection),
Home grown refers to fruit that has been grown in a controlled home garden environment,
Cultivated refers to fruit that has been grown in an unknown controlled environment,
Wild refers to uncultivated fruit that has been picked from the wild.
“Home grown”, “fruit farm” and “cultivated” fruit sources allow for (but do not neccessarily mean) harvesting at more favourable ripeness levels.

TA refers to Titratable Acidity measured as tartaric (g/l).
m indicates TAs measured as malic acid, and have been converted to tartaric by multiplying the malic value by 1.1193 (GFW of tartaric/GFW of malic).
c indicates TAs measured as citric, and have been converted to tartaric by multiplying the malic value by 1.0713.
Where acidity values have been quoted as % in the sources and the units have not been stated, it has been assumed that they are expressed as %/juice weight. Note that this assumption is, of course, not reasonable if the data were expressed as %/fruit weight.

In general
Ranges in data show true ranges from analyses on multiple fruits (i.e. multiple data sets have been used to obtain the range). The mean of the data within the range is presented after the range, i.e. written as “[min value – max value], [mean]”.
? indicates that data is possibly questionable.
~ indicates that data is approximate, usually to within +/- 10%.
^ beside data (SG, TA) indicates that it has been converted (e.g. SG converted from a Brix value, TA expressed as malic/citric) and is given to 4 decimal places. Therefore, if readers find the conversion formulas above unsatisfactory they may accurately back calculate to the value as measured in the original units, follwed by recalculation with a more preferrable conversion formula.
(Average) written in the Variety column indicates that the values in this row are average values of all the values listed below for that fruit.

Table of Data

FruitVarietySGTApHTanninYieldLocationFruit SourceData Source
Apple(average)1.0139-1.0667, 1.04892.20-12.35, 6.703.441.03
Allington Pippin1.0487.80.5England, UKae
Annie Elizabeth1.0529.11.3England, UKae
Baldwin1.0499, 1.0481^5.373.50.6New England, USAaf
Ben Davis1.0450, 1.0468^4.813.70.6New England, USAaf
Blenhein Orange1.0515.90.5England, UKae
Bramley’s Seedling1.04610.1-14.61.2-1England, UKae
Cap of Liberty1.0509.52.2England, UKae
Cox’s Orange Pippin1.0576.90.6England, UKae
Crab11.7383^ (11.4169^m + 0.3214^c)ac
Dabinett1.0532.22.5England, UKae
Delicious3ac
1.0539^, 1.0480@33.910.261BC, Canada“optimum ripeness”ad
Dymock Red1.0526.22.2England, UKae
Edward VII1.0468.60.9England, UKae
Foxwhelp1.0487.82.4England, UKae
Frederick1.04811.20.9England, UKae
Golden Delicious1.0586^, 1.0506@4.63.600.275BC, Canada“optimum ripeness”ad
Grimes Golden8.1ac
Jonathon8.4ac
1.0556^, 1.0466@7.23.330.233BC, Canada“optimum ripeness”ad
Jubliee1.0615^, 1.0515@4.53.530.341BC, Canada“optimum ripeness”ad
King1.0500, 1.0528^5.933.60.7New England, USAaf
Kingston Black1.0607.62.4England, UKae
Knotted Kernel1.0604.33.5England, UKae
Lane’s Prince Albert1.0459.70.8England, UKae
Laxton’s Superb1.0515.90.5England, UKae
McIntosh1.0400, 1.0468^5.373.50.8New England, USAaf
8.1ac
1.0520^, 1.0442@6.03.350.375BC, Canada“optimum ripeness”ad
Medaille d’Or1.0532.84.5England, UKae
Northern Spy1.0452, 1.0489^5.483.40.8New England, USAaf
1.0472@0.83ag
Newtown1.0564^, 1.0442@6.83.310.169BC, Canada“optimum ripeness”ad
Newton Wonder1.0436.20.8England, UKae
Rhone Island Greening1.0450, 1.0489^5.263.50.7New England, USAaf
Rome Beauty8.7ac
1.0139@0.77ag
Rosebury Russet1.0652, 1.0661^7.503.30.6New England, USAaf
Russet1.0099@0.51ag
Stayman1.0567^, 1.0476@6.63.370.236BC, Canada“optimum ripeness”ad
Stirling Castle1.0407.20.3England, UKae
Sweet Alford1.0532.91.4England, UKae
Winesap1.0611^, 1.0524@6.53.470.271BC, Canada“optimum ripeness”ad
Wealthy1.0407.80.6England, UKae
1.0470, 1.0506^6.833.30.5New England, USAaf
1.0485^, 1.0397@9.43.100.230BC, Canada“optimum ripeness”ad
Wellington1.04310.10.9England, UKae
Woodbine1.0573.41.6England, UKae
Worcester Permain1.0433.01.0England, UKae
Yarlington Mill1.0502.82.4England, UKae
Yellow Transparent11.0715^ (10.8572^m + 0.2143^c)ac
1.0258-1.0657*, 1.0451*ac
2.9-4.5ak
Apricot3.05-4.5ak
Blackberry(average)1.021-1.033, 1.0269.8-15.9, 12.13.18535
510SE Scotland, UKwilda
1.023SE Scotland, UKcultivateda
?NPacific NW, USAc
1.0206@9.8560^cf
Mixed Seedling1.03315.9^m2.1k
1.03210.63.18560SE Scotland, U.K.Fruit farma
Blueberry1.0507@2.0355^cf
Bilberry(average)1.0202-1.0421, 1.020213.7438-15.1169, 14.43043.08
Vaccinium myrtillus1.0281^@13.7438^ (9.0203^c+4.7234^m)2.98Suonenjoki, Finlandwildal
3.11-3.25Finlandam
15.1169^ (5.6029^c+9.5141^m)Germanyan
1.0281^@Finlandao
1.0256^@Norwayap
1.0202-1.0347^@Swedenaq
1.0322-1.0421^Hemne, Norwaywildbb
Currant (general)?NPacific NW, USAc
Blackcurrant(average)1.0152-1.079, 1.02829.3-48.2, 33.22.75-3.04, 2.934.1
1.054-1.066LSE Scotland, UKfruit farma
1.0451@30.9606^cf
1.055-1.079, 1.0159-1.0432@33.2103-48.2085^c2.48-3.602.4-5.8n
Boskoop Giant1.0588, 1.0302@t
2.6-3.1ak
Ribes rubrum1.0270^@29.3273^ (25.4434^c+3.8840^m)3.04Suonenjoki, Finlandcultivatedal
2.95-3.00Finlandam
1.0313^@Finlandao
1.0194-1.0464^@Swedenaq
1.0408^@England, USA, Switzerland, Finlandar
1.0167-1.0508^@Englandat
1.0171-1.0215^@Finlandau
1.0152-1.0237^@Finlandav
1.043322.75766SE Scotland, U.K.Fruit farma
1.0652-1.0738^Hemne, Norwaycultivatedbb
Redcurrant(average)1.0113-1.0244, 1.02321.4260-31.9111, 24.07503.01
21.5^m3.19h
1.0240@21.4260^cf
Ribes rubrum1.0171^@31.9111^ (26.4825^c+5.4286^m)2.91Finlandcultivatedal
3.10Finlandam
1.0229^@Finlandao
1.0244^@England, USA, Switzerland, Finlandar
1.0113-1.0204^@Finlandav
1.0369-1.0489^ , 1.0438^Hemne, Norwaycultivatedbb
WhitecurrantRibes x pallidum1.0384^@30.2891^ (25.7112^c+4.5779^m)3.04Suonenjoki, Finlandcultivatedal
1.0277^@England, USA, Switzerland, Finlandar
Cherry(average)1.0473-1.080, 1.06395.3-20.8, 123.79
Montmorency1.0644; 1.0390*; 1.0628@14.8^me
Montmorency1.08017.5^m3.52h
Early Richmond1.0473; 1.0312*; 1.0548@16.9^me
English Morello1.0785; 1.0411*; 1.0746@20.8^me
Bing1.0491; 1.0427*; 1.0611@5.3^me
3.7-4.4ak
Sour cherry1.0575-1.0790^Hemne, Norwaycultivatedbb
Cloudberry / mulberryRubus chamaemorus1.0195^@12.6253^ (4.0067^c+8.6186^m)3.20Finnish Laplandwildal
3.25-3.41Finlandam
1.0135^@Finlandao
Cranberry(average)1.0117-1.0184, 1.015633.9227-38.5668, 36.24482.59
1.0117@38.5668^cg
(mooseberry)Vaccinium oxycoccus1.0180^@33.9227^ (15.8124^c+18.1103^m)2.37S. Finlandwildal
2.80-2.81Finlandam
1.0184^@Finlandao
1.0144^@Norwayap
(Black) Crowberry(average)1.0197
Empertrum nigrum ssp.hermaphroditum1.0157^@7.2448^ (2.4319^c+4.8130^m)3.52Suonenjoki, Finlandwildal
1.0165^@Norwayap
Empertrum nigrum1.0270^Hemne, Norwaywildbb
Dewberry1.029SE Scotland, UKcultivateda
Elderberry(average)1.027-1.043, 1.0365.6-14.6, 10.53.75-4.21, 3.88537
584ab
red and green stemmed, Sambucus Niagra1.030-1.046635-680SE Scotland, UKwilda
red stemmed, Sambucus Niagra1.0275.64.21>376SE Scotland, UKwilda
green & red stemmed, Sambucus Niagra1.03511.23.75>580SE Scotland, UKwilda
red stemmed, Sambucus Niagra1.04314.63.68SE Scotland, UKwilda
Gooseberry(average)1.0323-1.067, 1.0419.0-24.0456, 19.53.22.1600
purple, Worcesterberry1.059-1.060L, 1.060LSE Scotland, UKhome growna
purple, Worcesterberry1.068L232.8600SE Scotland, UKhome growna
green, Keepsake1.03421.9^m3.2k
red, Ironmonger1.0369.0^m1.0k
red, Ribes uva-crispa1.0376^@24.0456^ (11.9236^c+12.1220^m)2.96Finlandcultivatedal
3.95Finlandam
1.0323-1.0336^@Finlandao
1.0326^@England, USA, Switzerland, Finlandar
red1.0562^Hemne, Norwaycultivatedbb
Grapefruit(average)1.0073-1.0490, 1.04122.7-3.55
1.04813b
2.7-3.2w
1.0073-1.0193*, 1.0189-1.0331@Floridau
1.0490^, 1.0202*, 1.0309@California-Arizonau
1.0274-1.0405^Floridav
1.0490^Texasu
2.9-3.55ak
Guava(average)1.0260-1.0468, 1.03603.66
1.0360^3.2-4.2s
1.0318-1.0468^, 1.0403^3.26-4.0, 3.62Hawaiiy
1.0260-1.0405^, 1.0316^9.5346-20.7832^c, 12.5342^cz
Kiwi1.0490^4s
Lemon(average)1.0046-1.0579, 1.0222.28
2.2-2.4w
1.0279-1.0485^, 1.0373^; 1.0046*7.6062-12.7485^c, 9.9631^c /100g2.3California-Arizonax
1.0067^x
2.0-2.5ak
<1.036Corbie Hill, NSW, Australiacultivateda
Lime1.0331-1.0579, 1.0404; 1.0000-1.0005@, 1.0000@5.2922-8.9132^c, 6.3957^c /100g1.7-3.2x
1.6-3.2ak
Lingonberry / cowberry(average)1.0281-1.0383, 1.031024.22.76
Vaccinium vitis-idaea1.0334^@24.2309^ (19.5298^c+4.7011^m)2.67S. Finlandwildal
2.78-2.90Finlandam
1.0326^@Finlandao
1.0281^@Norwayap
1.0215-1.0383^@Swedenaq
Loganberry?NPacific NW, USAc
1.03530.2^m2.6k
Mango(average)1.0584-1.0876, 1.07312.2497-5.0351, 3.69004.21
4.3s
Haden1.0584-1.0708^, 1.0652^2.2497-4.7137^c, 3.6424^c3.90-4.50, 4.10Hawaiiaa
Edward1.0820-1.0854^, 1.0838^3.6424-3.9638^c, 3.8567^c4.20Hawaiiaa
Joe Welch1.0584-1.0622^, 1.0603^2.2497-5.4636^c, 3.8567^c3.85-4.50, 4.18Hawaiiaa
Pope1.0670-1.0721^, 1.0695^3.4282-3.7496^c, 3.6424^c4.10-4.28, 4.19Hawaiiaa
Pirie1.0807^3.8567^c4.10Hawaiiaa
Zill1.0781^3.1068^c4.35Hawaiiaa
Waterhouse1.08765.0351^c4.20Hawaiiaa
Buchanan1.07253.3210^c4.20Hawaiiaa
Irwin1.06052.8925^c4.05Hawaiiaa
4.5Hawaii and Nigeriaah
Black MulberryMorus nigra1.062-1.066^, 1.065^17.3658^c-30.1678^c, 22.5723^c3.10-3.36, 3.28840La Gomera, Canary Islandsba
Orange3.3-3.8w
(bitter)2.55-2.95ak
(sweet)2.7-4.3ak
Papaya (puree)1.0360^5s
Solo1.0645^ai
Passionfruit(average)1.0176-1.091, 1.0573.08, 2.6-3.5393
1.0468@22.9258^c393i
Purple1.063-1.091, 1.072; 1.0129-1.0331*, 1.0240*; 1.0292-1.0545@, 1.0404@2.6-3.2, 2.8205-485, 343Indiao
Purple1.0674; 1.0193*3.3443Queensland, Australiap
Purple1.0764^Australiam
Yellow1.0532-1.0746, 1.0618; 1.0240-1.0309*, 1.0274*; 1.0373-1.0473@, 1.0404@2.8-3.3, 3.0Hawaiiq
1.0176* 1.0326@3.5Belgian Congo, Africar
2.6-3.2s
265-460, 292i
300-330Hawaiiaj
2.6-3.4ak
PeachElegant Lady<1.034650Ille Roussillon, Francestore boughta
3.55-4.0ak
PearBartlett1.0575^?California?, USAd
3.0-4.5ak
Pineapple1.0490-1.0618^d
3.8-4s
3.05-3.45ak
Plum(average)1.05010.93.505690
Santa Rosa1.052L, <1.047Spainstore boughta
Spanish Friar~690Spainstore boughta
3.0-4.5ak
mixture1.04810.93.26cultivateda
Pomegranate1.0571@15.7481^cj
Black Raspberry(average)1.0301-1.049, 1.03968.6708
1.0301@11.1415^cf
Bristol1.0496.2^mh
Red Raspberry(average)1.0153-1.081, 1.0370511.1415-22.4, 18.733073.11.35643
1.040L470-?630SE Scotland, UKfruit farma
1.032L19.92.96655PSE Scotland, UKfruit farma
1.0287@11.1415^cf
Marcy1.08122.4^m3.12h
Baumforth A1.030-1.041, 1.03417.6-25.0^m, 21.2^m1.0-1.7k
2.5-3.1ak
Rubus idaeus1.0413^@19.5097^ (16.2302^c+3.2795^m)3.28S. Finlandwildal
1.0051-1.0416^@Swedenaq
1.0236^@England, USA, Switzerland, Finlandar
1.0153-1.0278^@England, USA, Switzerland, USA, Canada, New Zealand, Germany, Romania, Hungaryas
Purple RaspberrySodus1.04421.6^m3.13h
Quince1.0365@12.8556^cf
Rhubarb(average)1.0102-1.024, 1.0203.17>569a
1.021-1.024LN.Yorkshire, UKhome grown
(+ non-location store bought)
a
1.019L>>12.43.17>470SE Scotland, UKhome growna
1.016-1.020L3.09-3.17>667SE Scotland, UKstore boughta
? 1.0102^@830-760Oregon, USAaz
Strawberry(average)1.0129-1.0430, 1.0287.5-13.2, 10.93.321.9490
Cambridge Favourite~500SE Scotland, UKhome growna
1.032L480Maryland, USAfruit farmb
1.0129@10.8201^cf
Culver1.04113.2^m3.48h
Royal Sovereign1.05410.6^m1.9k
3.0-3.4ak
Fragaria x ananassa1.0261^@12.2345^ (7.2313^c+5.0033^m)3.50Suonenjoki, Finlandcultivatedal
3.40-3.45Finlandam
1.0219-1.0234^@Finlandao
1.0202-1.0375^@Swedenaq
1.0223^@England, USA, Switzerland, Finlandar
1.0170-1.0289^@Finlandau
1.0165-1.0263^@Finlandav
1.0131-1.0332^@Germany, Italy, England, Finland, Switzerlandaw
1.0200-1.0430^@Finlandax
Fragaria x ananassa cv. Selva)7.53.51Watsonville, CA, USAay
1.028LScotland, U.K.cultivateda
1.0322^Main Ridge, VIC, Australiacultivateda

 

Data Sources

a = Ben Rotter, personal winemaking experience.
b = Roger Placer, “Re: pure strawberry wine plans” rec.crafts.winemaking Usenet newsgroup thread, begun 2003-05-28. (Checked and used with permission).
c = Yang, H. Y., Thomas, G. E., and Wiegand, E. H. 1950. The application of pectic enzymes to berry and Concord wines. Wines and Vines 31, No. 4, 77-78.
d = Amerine, M. A., Berg, H. W., Cruess, W. V. 1967. The Technology of Wine Making. 2nd ed. The AVI Publishing Company Inc.
e = Swisher, C. A. and Poe, C. F. 1935. Chemical changes accompanying the fermentation of cherry juice. Fruit Products J. 14, 367-369, 379.
f = Chatfield, C., and McLaughlin, L. I. 1931. Proximate composition of foods. U.S. Dept. Agr. Circ. 50, Rev.
g = Rice, C. C., Fellers, C. R., and Clague, J. A. 1939. Cranberry juice – manufacture and properties. N.Y. State Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 728.
h = Pederson, C. S., Beattle, H. G., and Stotz, E. H. 1947. Deterioration of processed fruit juices. N.Y. State Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 728.
i = Poore, H. D. 1935. Passion fruit products. Fruit Products J. 14, 264-266, 285.
j = Nelson, E. K. 1927. The non-volatile acids of the pear, quince, apple, loganberry, blueberry, cranberry, lemon and pomegranate. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 49, 487-488.
k = Charley, V. L. S. 1932. Investigations on fruit products. 6 – Fruit syrups. Ann. Rept. Long Ashton Research Sta. 162.
l = Charley, V. L. S. 1936. Chemical constituents of fresh juices from single varieties of soft fruits, and the suitability of juices for syrup manufacture. Ann.. Rept. Long Ashton Research Sta. 207.
m = Osmond, A., and Wilson, W. (1954). Tables of composition of Australian foods. Australian Insititute of Anatomy, Canberra.
n = Kieser, M. E., Pollard, A., and Sissons, D. J. 1957. The acitivity of pectin methylesterase in black currants. Progress Rept. Ann. Rept. Long Ashton Research Sta. 134-137.
o = Pruthi, J. S., and Lal, G. 1959. Chemical composition of passion fruit (P.edulis). J. Sci. Food Agr. 10, 188-192.
p = Gurney, E. H. 1937. Composition of some fruits and fruit waste. Queensland Agr. J. 47, 403-405.
q = Boyle, F. P., Shaw, T. N., and Herman, G. D. 1955. Efficient extraction single strength technique open up wide uses for new passion fruit juice. Food Eng. 27, No. 9, 94, 184.
r = Wilbaux, R. 1954. Private communication from Bureau d’Etudes Techniques, Bukavu, Belgian Congo in Tressler, D.K. et al. Fruit and Vegetable Juice Processing Technology. The AVI Publishing Co. Inc. Westport, Connecticut. 1961.
s = Hicks, D. ed. 1990. Production and Packaging of Non-Carbonated Fruit Juices and Fruit Beverages. Blackie and Son Ltd, Glasgow and London.
t = Koch, J., and Zeyen, E. 1957. Standardization of black currant juice by means of chemical analysis. Fruchtsaft-Ind. 2, 121-127.
u = Sinclair, W. B. 1972. The Grapefruit. Univ. of Calif. Press, Riverside and USDA. 1962. Chemistry and Technology of Citrus. Citrus Products and Byproducts. U.S. Dep. Agric. Handbk., 98.
v = Roberts, J. A. and Gaddum, L. W. 1937. Composition of citrus fruit juices. Ind. Eng. Chem. 29, 574-575.
w = Sunkist Research Division. 1965. Unpublished results. Sunkist Growers. Res. Dep. Ontario, Calif. in Tressler, D. K., et al. 1980. Fruit and Vegetable Juice Processing Technology. AVI Publishing Co. 3rd ed.
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